Study of pattern related to side effects and removal of IUCD usage

Dhruvendra Pandey, Smriti Tiwari


Background: An effective contraception is the only way to stop this population explosion. There are too advantages and side effects associated with the IUCD, But most of side effects are effectively controlled by proper selection of clients and counseling process. Objective: To know the pattern of side effects and reason for removal among beneficiaries.

Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted in 400 beneficiaries selected using systematic random sampling. Study sites included both urban and rural area. Data was entered and analyzed using MS excel sheet.  

Results: In this study maximum client 348 (87%) belonged to age group of 21 to 30 years. 47 (11.8%) clients were illiterate and 285 (71.3%) clients were unemployed/housewife. Most common side effect was pain with heavy bleeding in 30.6% clients, pain in 23.8% clients and pain with light spotting in 18.4% clients. Most common reasons for removal were pain with heavy bleeding in 42.6% clients while 10 (12.8%) clients removed due to husband’s insistence.

Conclusions:After ICUD insertion 36.8% clients had side effect. Pain with heavy bleeding, pain with light spotting and only pain are the most common type of side effects. Removal of ICUD was 19.25%. Most common reason for removal was pain with heavy bleeding.


IUCD, Contraception, Side effects, Removal, Family planning

Full Text:



Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. IUCD Reference manual for nursing personnel. In: Government of India, eds. A Manual. 2nd ed. New Delhi: USAID; 2007: 1-9.

Salem R. New attention to the IUD: Expanding women's contraceptive options to meet their needs. In: Salem R, eds. Population Reports, Series B, No. 7. The INFO Project. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; February 2006.

Hatcher Robert A, Rinehart Ward, Blackburn Richard, Geller Judith S, Shelton James D; WHO. Population information program. In: Hatcher Robert A, Rinehart Ward, Blackburn Richard, Geller Judith S, Shelton James D; WHO, eds. The Essentials of Contraceptive Technology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health; 1997.

Azmat SK, Shaikh BT, Hammed W, Bilgrami M, Mustafa G, Ali M, et al. Prevalence of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors: Findings from a retrospective study with clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan. BMC Women’s Health. 2012;12:8.

Nguyen TH, Park MH, Le MH, Ngo TD. The dynamics of intrauterine device (IUD) use among Vietnamese women: a retrospective study. London: Marie Stopes International; 2011. Available at:

Muzammil Khursheed, Kishore Surekha, Garg BS. Study of factors related to the discontinuation of IUCD usage. Indian J Community Health. 2011 Jun;S.I.:8-10.

Ambadekar NN, Rathod KZ, Zodpey SP. Study of Cu T utilization status and some of the factors associated with discontinuation of Cu T in rural part of Yavatmal district. Indian J Community Med. 2011;36:54-6.

Ambadekar NN, Rathod KZ, Zodpey SP. Health care delivery practices in the rural part of the Yavatmal district regarding IUD insertion. Indian J Med Res. 2010;54:201-4.

Patel SK, Lal D. Quality of services, retention and causes of discontinuation of IUD contraception in Rural India. In: Patel SK, Lal D, eds. Annual Meeting Programme. America: Population Association of America; 2012

Alam ME, Bradley J, Shabnam F. IUD use and discontinuation in Bangladesh. In: Alam ME, Bradley J, Shabnam F, eds. E&R Study. New York: Engender Health/The ACQUIRE Project; 2007.

Tripathi V, Nandan D, Salhan S. Determinants of early discontinuation of IUCD use in rural northern district of India: a multivariate analysis and its validation. J Biosoc Sci. 2005 May;37(3):319.

Arias DR. Compelling reasons for recommending IUDs to any women of reproductive age. Int J Fertil. 2002;47(2):87-93.

Van Zijl S, Morroni C, Van Der Spuy ZM. A survey to assess knowledge and acceptability of the intrauterine device in the family planning services in Cape Town, South Africa. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2010;36:73-8.

Ceylan A, Ertem M, Saka G, Akdeniz N. Post abortion family planning counseling as a tool to increase contraception use. BMC Public Health. 2009;15(9):20.