DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20220030

Types, differences and prognosis of colonic polyps

Rahmathulla Safiyul Rahman, Ali Saeed Alharbi, Bassam Ahmed Basaben, Ahmad Adnan Alsalman, Anas Sulaiman Aljohani, Bushra Abdulrahman Banafea, Hadeel Saad Aldhfyan, Amna Farouk Ammar, Wesam Mohammed Areeshi, Hammam Khalid Alhussain, Turki Bandar Alotaibi

Abstract


Colon polyps might originate from the submucosa including lymphoid aggregates, carcinoids and lipomas. On the other hand, most polyps usually arise from the mucosa and include various types, whether neoplastic or not. The prognosis and treatment of these lesions depend on establishing an adequate diagnosis to rule out the presence of malignancy. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of each subclassification's different types and presentations to achieve the best outcomes. When conducting colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer, colorectal polyps are commonly discovered. The prevalence of these lesions is high. However, most of them do not have any clinical significance. On the other hand, evidence shows that some polyps might have premalignant characteristics, which are usually challenging to manage in clinical practice. Therefore, evidence shows that the most appropriate approach to managing these lesions and achieving the best prognosis would be identifying and treating them as early as possible before complications appear to intervene against potential morbidities and mortality. Clinicians should consider the wide variations of colorectal cancer to establish the most appropriate diagnosis. A histological diagnosis is essential in these events to exclude malignancy and decide the most appropriate treatment plan.


Keywords


Diagnosis, Management, Colorectal carcinoma, Colorectal polyps, Prognosis, Types

Full Text:

PDF

References


Meseeha M, Attia M. Colon Polyps. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021.

Yoshizawa N, Yamaguchi H, Kaminishi M. Differential diagnosis of solitary gastric Peutz-Jeghers-type polyp with stomach cancer: a case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2018;51:261-4.

Turner JS, Henry D, Chase A, Kpodzo D, Flood MC, Clark CE. Adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy: does the participation of a resident matter? Am Surgeon. 2018;84(6):1064-8.

Hsieh YH, Leung FW. Increase your adenoma detection rate without using fancy adjunct tools. Tzu-Chi Med J. 2018;30(3):127-34.

Chen EY, Vaccaro GM. Small bowel adenocarcinoma. Clinic Colon Rect Surg. 2018;31(5):267-77.

Sweetser S, Smyrk TC, Sinicrope FA. Serrated colon polyps as precursors to colorectal cancer. Clinic Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11(7):760-7.

Son PT, Reda A, Viet DC, Quynh NXT, Hung DT, Tung TH, et al. Exchange transfusion in the management of critical pertussis in young infants: a case series. Vox Sanguinis. 2021;116(9):976-82.

El-Qushayri AE, Dahy A, Reda A, Mahmoud MA, Mageed SA, Kamel AMA, et al. A closer look to the high burden of the psychiatric disorders among health care workers (HCWs) in Egypt during COVID-19 outbreak: a meta-analysis of 3137 HCWs. Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:2021045.

El-Qushayri AE, Ghozy S, Reda A, Kamel AMA, Abbas AS, Dmytriw AA. The impact of Parkinson's disease on manifestations and outcomes of Covid-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Med Virol. 2021:2278.

Nguyen TM, Huan VT, Reda A, Morsy S, Giang HTN, Tri VD, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of neonatal dengue at the Children's Hospital 1, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. J Clinic Virol. 2021;138:104758.

Diamond SJ, Enestvedt BK, Jiang Z, Holub JL, Gupta M, Lieberman DA, et al. Adenoma detection rate increases with each decade of life after 50 years of age. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74(1):135-40.

Reinhart K, Bannert C, Dunkler D, Salzl P, Trauner M, Renner F, et al. Prevalence of flat lesions in a large screening population and their role in colonoscopy quality improvement. Endoscopy. 2013;45(5):350-6.

O'Brien MJ, Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Gottlieb LS, Sternberg SS, Diaz B, et al. The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas. Gastroenterology. 1990;98(2):371-9.

Burnett-Hartman AN, Passarelli MN, Adams SV, Upton MP, Zhu L, Potter JD, et al. Differences in epidemiologic risk factors for colorectal adenomas and serrated polyps by lesion severity and anatomical site. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(7):625-37.

Thieu H, Dat B, Nam NH, Reda A, Duc NT, Alshareef A, et al. Antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori infection in a children's hospital in Vietnam: prevalence and associated factors. Minerva Medica. 2020;111(5):498-501.

Okabayashi K, Ashrafian H, Hasegawa H, Yoo J, Patel VM, Harling L, et al. Body mass index category as a risk factor for colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(8):1175-85.

Fu Z, Shrubsole MJ, Smalley WE, Wu H, Chen Z, Shyr Y, et al. Lifestyle factors and their combined impact on the risk of colorectal polyps. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(9):766-76.

Broughton T, Sington J, Beales IL. Statin use is associated with a reduced incidence of colorectal adenomatous polyps. Int J Colorect Dis. 2013;28(4):469-76.

Shussman N, Wexner SD. Colorectal polyps and polyposis syndromes. Gastroenterol Rep. 2014;2(1):1-15.

Bertelson NL, Kalkbrenner KA, Merchea A, Dozois EJ, Landmann RG, Petris GD, et al. Colectomy for endoscopically unresectable polyps: how often is it cancer? Dise Colon Rect. 2012;55(11):1111-6.

Sakamoto T, Matsuda T, Nakajima T, Saito Y. Clinicopathological features of colorectal polyps: evaluation of the 'predict, resect and discard' strategies. Colorect Dis. 2013;15(6):295-300.

Dibas M, Doheim MF, Ghozy S, Ros MH, El-Helw GO, Reda A. Incidence and survival rates and trends of skull base chondrosarcoma: a population-based study. Clinic Neurol Neurosurg. 2020;198:106153.

Haggitt RC, Glotzbach RE, Soffer EE, Wruble LD. Prognostic factors in colorectal carcinomas arising in adenomas: implications for lesions removed by endoscopic polypectomy. Gastroenterology. 1985;89(2):328-36.

Sugumar A, Sinicrope FA. Serrated polyps of the colon. F1000 Med Rep. 2010;2:89.

Winawer S, Fletcher R, Rex D, Bond J, Burt R, Ferrucci J, et al. Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-Update based on new evidence. Gastroenterology. 2003;124(2):544-60.

Aretz S. The differential diagnosis and surveillance of hereditary gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010;107(10):163-73.