DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20220004

Dental fractures: types, causes, and treatment

Samar A. Bamofleh, Alanoud F. Alotaibi, Aidel A. Alshahrani, Shoroug M. Alahmadi, Abdulaziz I. AlHumaidan, Sarah A. Abomelha, Walaa A. Alkheshail, Rayyanah N. Almuhaydib, Roaa M. Zafer, Khloud M. Alkahtani, Bashayer T. Albeladi

Abstract


Studies indicate that the management of dental fractures might be challenging because many cases present with minor, hard-to-discover traumas, requiring extensive evaluation and diagnostic procedures. Accordingly, adequate management can only be achieved by establishing a proper diagnosis, drawing an adequate treatment plan, and conducting regular follow-up appointments. We have discussed the different causes, types, and treatments of dental fractures. The commonest causes include impaction by trauma, whether direct or indirect. Many traumatic events were reported in the literature, and age and carious lesions are important factors to consider. Many types of dental fractures were also reported in the literature, including root fractures, crown root fractures, enamel-dentin fractures with and without pulp exposure or crown fractures, enamel infractions, and fractures. Other types include avulsion, intrusion, extrusion, lateral luxation, concussion or subluxation, splinting, and alveolar segment fractures. The treatment should be integrated based on the fracture type, and adequate follow-up should be established to achieve the best predictive outcomes.


Keywords


Dental fractures, Management, Evaluation, Etiology, Causes, Types, Classification

Full Text:

PDF

References


Petersson EE, Andersson L, Sörensen S. Traumatic oral vs non-oral injuries. Swedish Dent J. 1997;21(1-2):55-68.

Juneja P, Kulkarni S, Raje S. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries and their relation with predisposing factors among 8-15 years old school children of Indore city, India. Clujul Med. (1957). 2018;91(3):328-35.

Diangelis AJ, Andreasen JO, Ebeleseder KA, et al. Guidelines for the Management of Traumatic Dental Injuries: 1. Fractures and Luxations of Permanent Teeth. Pediatric Dentistry. 2017;39(6):401-11.

Bratteberg M, Thelen DS, Klock KS, Bårdsen A. Traumatic dental injuries-Prevalence and severity among 16-year-old pupils in western Norway. Dent Traumatol. 2018;34(3):144-50.

Son PT, Reda A, Viet DC. Exchange transfusion in the management of critical pertussis in young infants: a case series. Vox Sang. 2021;116(9):976-82.

Pham TS, Reda A, Ngan Nguyen TT, Ng SJ, Huan VT, Viet DC, Huy NT. Blood exchange transfusion in viral hepatitis in a small infant: a case report. Transfus Apher Sci. 2020;59(6):102907.

Nguyen TM, Huan VT, Reda A, Morsy S, Nam Giang HT, Tri VD, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of neonatal dengue at the Children's Hospital 1, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. J Clin Virol. 2021;138:104758.

Thieu H, Bach Dat B, Nam NH, Reda A, Duc NT, Alshareef A, et al. Antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori infection in a children's hospital in Vietnam: prevalence and associated factors. Minerva Med. 2020;111(5):498-501.

El-Qushayri AE, Dahy A, Reda A, Mahmoud MA, Mageed SA, Kamel AMA, Ghozy S. A closer look at the high burden of psychiatric disorders among healthcare workers in Egypt during the COVID-19 pandemic. Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021045.

El-Qushayri AE, Ghozy S, Reda A, Kamel AMA, Abbas AS, Dmytriw AA. The impact of Parkinson's disease on manifestations and outcomes of Covid-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Med Virol. 2021;e2278.

Olsburgh S, Jacoby T, Krejci I. Crown fractures in the permanent dentition: pulpal and restorative considerations. Dent Traumatol. 2002;18(3):103-15.

Bourguignon C, Cohenca N, Lauridsen E, Flores MT, O'Connell AC, Day PF, et al. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries: 1. Fractures and luxations. Dent Traumatol. 2020;36(4):314-30.

Zaleckiene V, Peciuliene V, Brukiene V, Drukteinis S. Traumatic dental injuries: etiology, prevalence and possible outcomes. Stomatologija. 2014;16(1):7-14.

Faus-Damiá M, Alegre-Domingo T, Faus-Matoses I, Faus-Matoses V, Faus-Llácer VJ. Traumatic dental injuries among schoolchildren in Valencia, Spain. Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal. 2011;16(2):292-5.

Hecova H, Tzigkounakis V, Merglova V, Netolicky J. A retrospective study of 889 injured permanent teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2010;26(6):466-75.

Artun J, Behbehani F, Al-Jame B, Kerosuo H. Incisor trauma in an adolescent Arab population: prevalence, severity, and occlusal risk factors. Am J Orthodont Dentofac Orthoped. 2005;128(3):347-52.

Jones LC. Dental Trauma. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2020;32(4):631-8.

Santos Filho PC, Quagliatto PS, Simamoto PC, Soares CJ. Dental trauma: restorative procedures using composite resin and mouthguards for prevention. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2007;8(6):89-95.

Love RM. Bacterial penetration of the root canal of intact incisor teeth after a simulated traumatic injury. Endodont Dent Traumatol. 1996;12(6):289-93.

Cox CF, Bergenholtz G, Heys DR, Syed SA, Fitzgerald M, Heys RJ. Pulp capping of dental pulp mechanically exposed to oral microflora: a 1-2 year observation of wound healing in the monkey. J Oral Pathol. 1985;14(2):156-68.

Baume LJ, Holz J. Long term clinical assessment of direct pulp capping. Int Dent J. 1981;31(4):251-60.

Cvek M. A clinical report on partial pulpotomy and capping with calcium hydroxide in permanent incisors with complicated crown fracture. J Endodont. 1978;4(8):232-7.

Yu CY, Abbott PV. Responses of the pulp, periradicular and soft tissues following trauma to the permanent teeth. Austral Dent J. 2016;61:39-58.