Published: 2021-12-27

Immunological and physiological responses related to orthodontic treatment

Rehab Fuad Bawyan, Ahmed Jamil Baajajah, Haitham Abdullah Alzahrani, Mohammed Abdulkader Murad, Hattan Mohammed Hisham Jamalellail, Sarah Yousef Muthaffar, Abdulaziz Abdulrahim Alandijani, Mohammed Abdulrhman Khayat, Abdulrahman Ahmed Bahurmoz, Abdulrahman Talal Azab, Majed Abdullah Almalki


Orthodontic treatment is usually approached to achieve better aesthetics by influencing tooth movement in different positions within the jaw. The application of mechanical forces during the process of treatment is the main responsible for these events. Remarkable changes in the vascularity of the underlying tissues were also reported to occur secondary to applying orthodontic forces. This significantly leads to the synthesis and release of many metabolites and signaling molecules. Furthermore, it might be associated with various immunological and physiological responses that enhance or deteriorate the prognosis. Therefore, the present study reviewed the literature to identify the different immunological and physiological responses secondary to orthodontic treatment. Our findings indicate that different immune cells and immunoglobulins are usually involved in orthodontic treatment-related events. Moreover, we found that cytokines and chemokines have an important role in the post-treatment inflammatory process, leading to bone resorption or bone formation. Various cytokines were reported in this context, including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-12, IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β. The roles of these modalities have been discussed based on their effects on bone remodeling following orthodontic treatment.


Inflammation, Immunological, Physiological, Orthodontic, Treatment

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