DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20214810
Published: 2021-12-27

Antibiotics on the rise: Google trends as a monitoring tool in India

Manoj Reddy Somagutta, Maria K. L. Pormento, Namrata Hange, Obumneme J. Iloeje, Molly S. Jain, Klodin Ghazarian, Nayana Sasidharan, Gouthami Sajjanagandla, Ashwini Mahadevaiah, Greta Mahmutaj, Saad Hanan

Abstract


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put enormous strains on health care and public sector resources globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The extensive and often inept use of antibiotics during the pandemic is suspected. Data from Google trends (GT) enables the assessment of Google users' interest in a specific topic. A strong correlation between active COVID-19 cases and GT search terms of antibiotics (r=0.90) azithromycin (r=0.96) and doxycycline (r=0.93) were noticed with p<0.05. However, hydroxychloroquine (r=0.21) was not significant. Further investigation is needed to determine GT as a possible adjunctive monitoring tool for antibiotic use and formulate drug resistance patterns in India.

 


Keywords


Google trends, Antibiotics, Antibiotic resistance, Azithromycin, COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine

Full Text:

PDF

References


Calderón-Parra J, Muiño-Miguez A, Bendala-Estrada AD, Ramos-Martínez A, Muñez-Rubio E, Fernández Carracedo E, et al. Inappropriate antibiotic use in the COVID-19 era: Factors associated with inappropriate prescribing and secondary complications. Analysis of the registry SEMI-COVID. PloS one. 2021;16(5):e0251340.

Langford BJ, So M, Raybardhan S, Leung V, Soucy JP, Westwood D, Daneman N, MacFadden DR. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with COVID-19: rapid review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(4):520-31.

Carey ME, Jain R, Yousuf M, Maes M, Dyson ZA, Thu TN, et al. Spontaneous emergence of azithromycin resistance in independent lineages of Salmonella Typhi in Northern India. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;72(5):120-7.

Mitjà Villar O, Corbacho-Monné M, Ubals M, Alemany A, Suñer Navarro C, Tebé C, et al. A cluster-randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine for prevention of Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(5):417-27.

Butler CC, Dorward J, Yu LM, Gbinigie O, Hayward G, Saville BR, et al. Azithromycin for community treatment of suspected COVID-19 in people at increased risk of an adverse clinical course in the UK (PRINCIPLE): a randomised, controlled, open-label, adaptive platform trial. The Lancet. 2021;397(10279):1063-74.

Nafade V, Huddart S, Sulis G, Daftary A, Miraj SS, Saravu K, Pai M. Over-the-counter antibiotic dispensing by pharmacies: a standardised patient study in Udupi district, India. BMJ Global Health. 2019;4(6):e001869.

Sulis G, Batomen B, Kotwani A, Pai M, Gandra S. Sales of antibiotics and hydroxychloroquine in India during the COVID-19 epidemic: An interrupted time series analysis. PLoS Med. 2021;18(7):e1003682.

World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Available at: Who.int. https://www.who.int/india/emergencies/coronavirus-disease-(covid-19). Accessed on 18 July 2021.

Directorate General of Health Services. Clinical management protocol: COVID-19. Version 4. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2020. Available at: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/Clinical ManagementProtocolforCOVID19dated27062020.pdf. Accessed on 14 June 2021.

Mayasari NR, Ho DK, Lundy DJ, Skalny AV, Tinkov AA, Teng I, et al. Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security and diet-related lifestyle behaviors: An analytical study of google trends-based query volumes. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):3103.

Mayasari NR, Ho DK, Lundy DJ, Skalny AV, Tinkov AA, Teng I, et al. Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security and diet-related lifestyle behaviors: An analytical study of google trends-based query volumes. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):3103.

COVID 19 Situation Update report-94. World Health Organization. Available at: Cdn.who.int2021

https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/wrindia/situation-report/india-situation-report-19.pdf?sfvrsn=14c7933f_2. Accessed on 18 July 2021.

Faruqui N, Raman V, Shiv J, Chaturvedi S, Muzumdar M, Prasad V. Informal collectives and access to healthcare during India’s COVID-19 second wave crisis. BMJ Global Health. 2021;6:e006731.

Singh SK, Sengupta S, Antony R, Bhattacharya S, Mukhopadhyay C, Ramasubramanian V, et al. Variations in antibiotic use across India: multi-centre study through Global Point Prevalence survey. J Hosp Infect. 2019;103(3):280-3.

Carey ME, Jain R, Yousuf M, Maes M, Dyson ZA, Thu TN, et al. Spontaneous emergence of azithromycin resistance in independent lineages of Salmonella Typhi in Northern India. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;72(5):120-7.

Minister of Health and Family welfare Government of India–Press release Hindu. 2021. 40,845 cases of mucormycosis infection so far: Health Minister. The Hindu. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/ news/national/40845-cases-of-mucormycosis-infection-so-far-health-minister/article35015893.ece. Accessed on 18 July 2021.

Gandra S, Ram S, Levitz SM. The “black fungus” in India: the emerging syndemic of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Ann Intern Med. 2021; 21-54.

Verma M, Kishore K, Kumar M, Sondh AR, Aggarwal G, Kathirvel S. Google search trends predicting disease outbreaks: An analysis from India. Healthcare Informat Res. 2018;24(4):300-8.

Cervellin G, Comelli I, Lippi G. Is Google Trends a reliable tool for digital epidemiology? Insights from different clinical settings. J Epidemiol Global Health. 2017;7(3):185-9.

Polgreen PM, Chen Y, Pennock DM, Nelson FD, Weinstein RA. Using internet searches for influenza surveillance. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(11):1443-8.