DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20214836

Spatial analysis of COVID-19 in North Minahasa Regency of North Sulawesi Province

Grace D. Kandou, Budi T. Ratag, Sekplin A. S. Sekeon, Priscilla C. Kandou

Abstract


Background: COVID-19 is an infectious disease that is currently a concern and has become a global problem. The trend in the number of confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 every day is still increasing significantly. North Sulawesi Province currently has 7 regencies/cities which are declared as local transmission areas including North Minahasa Regency. The population density factor can affect the process of transmission of this disease. This study aims to determine the spatial description of the distribution of COVID-19 events in North Minahasa Regency.

Methods: This quantitative research with descriptive observational design using a geographic information system approach. The location is in 10 sub-districts of North Minahasa Regency. Study population was all patients who were confirmed positive for COVID-19 based on data from the North Minahasa District Health Office as of 13 February 2021, as many as 1,273 cases. Simple random sampling was used and obtained 300 samples.

Results: Results showed that the highest number of cases was for the age group 30-49 years (40%), female gender (54.7%), symptom onset date interval 4 days (26.7%), confirmation date grouped by month, namely October in 2020 (23%), the status of the patient recovered (86%), and there were no comorbidities (82%).

Conclusions: Most of the cases of COVID-19 were found in densely populated areas and passenger transit areas between districts/cities. Policies on prevention and supervision of health protocols that are implemented must synergize across sectors and need to be improved.


Keywords


COVID-19, Outbreak, Spatial

Full Text:

PDF

References


ProMED-mail. ProMED International Society for Infectious Disease. Available at: https://promed mail.org/promed-post/?id=6864153%20#COVID19. Accessed on 11 February 2021.

WHO. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Available at: https://covid19.who.int/. Accessed on 12 February 2021.

Satuan Gugus Tugas Penanganan COVID-19. Peta Sebaran. Available at: https://covid19.go.id/peta-sebaran. Accessed on 12 February 2021.

Pemerintah Sulawesi Utara. Data COVID-19 di Provinsi Sulawesi Utara. Available at: https://corona.sulutprov.go.id/data. Accessed on 13 February 2021.

Achmadi F. Manajemen Penyakit Berbasis Wilayah. Jakarta: Rajawali Press. 2014.

Kusumadewi S, Fauzijah A, Khoiruddin AA, Wahid F, Setiawan MA, Rahayu NW, Prayudi Y. Informatika Kesehatan. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu. 2009. Available at: https://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjBybWHt9P0AhVb7HMBHRl_BX8QFnoECAQQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdocplayer.info%2F43073714-Informatika-kesehatan.html&usg=AOvVaw1MQX42vmi-lzEt-9z8ohlB. Accessed on 13 February 2021.

Mollalo A, Vahedi B, Rivera KM. GIS-based spatial modeling of COVID-19 incidence rate in the continental United States. Science of Total Environment. 2020;728:138884.

JHU CSSE. COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). 2020. Available at: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html. Accessed on 13 February 2021.

BPS Minut. Kabupaten Minahasa Utara Dalam Angka 2021. Airmadidi: Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Minahasa Utara. 2021. Available at: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwiG5cPdtdP0AhW_gtgFHf2rBToQFnoECAUQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fminutkab.bps.go.id%2F&usg=AOvVaw2f_YeENvtbe4aSEFzMpqGX. Accessed on 24 July 2021.

Astrini R, Oswald P. Module Quantum GIS Dasar. Mataram: BAPPEDA Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat. 2012. Available at: https://www.google.com/url?sa= t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwiqmZbFtdP0AhVDkNgFHfujBBwQFnoECAgQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fbappeda.ntbprov.go.id%2Fedukasi%2Fmodule-quantum-gis-dasar%2F&usg=AOvVaw3FYeARP-GCiwyc-1TylDaB. Accessed on 24 July 2021.

Budiyanto E. Sistem Informasi Geografis dengan Quantum GIS. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi. 2016. Available at: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct =j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjl_6DxtdP0AhWV5nMBHYoLDkIQFnoECAYQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fopac.perpusnas.go.id%2FDetailOpac.aspx%3Fid%3D1167068&usg=AOvVaw2yNfvidiNGQzsAXIjwrW2M. Accessed on 24 July 2021.

Chandra B. Pengantar Kesehatan Lingkungan. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC. 2005. Available at: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct =j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjt1vqJttP0AhXX7XMBHV7gBNAQFnoECAMQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fopac.perpusnas.go.id%2FDetailOpac.aspx%3Fid%3D549002&usg=AOvVaw2aN0-S24e8GIX7O1hQTC7y. Accessed on 24 July 2021.

Ekadinata A, Dewi S, Hadi DP, Nugroho DK & Johana F. Sistem Informasi Geografis Untuk Pengelolaan Bentang Lahan Berbasis Sumber Daya Alam. Bogor: World Agoforestry Centre. 2008. Available at: https://www.worldagroforestry.org/pub lication/sistem-informasi-geografis-untuk-pengelolaan-bentang-lahan-berbasis-sumber-daya-alam. Accessed on 24 July 2021.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Infeksi Emerging. 2020. Available at: https://infeksiemerging.kemkes.go.id. Accessed on 13 February 2021.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Pedoman Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2020. Available at: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esr c=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjlwpXOttP0AhXJ7XMBHUQYA28QFnoECAMQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fcovid19.go.id%2Fp%2Fprotokol%2Fpedoman-pencegahan-dan-pengendalian-coronavirus-disease-covid-19-revisi-ke-5&usg=AOvVaw2ER0vKyDI4QuqN_EbO3C qW. Accessed on 13 February 2021.

Pebesma EJ, Bivand R, Gomez-Rubio V. Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R. New York: Springer. 2008.

Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Shidique R. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res. 2020;24:91-8.

Therese KLS, White LF, Nichols B. Population density and basic reproductive number of COVID-19 across United States counties. National Library of Medicine. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1101/ 2020.06.12.20130021. Accessed on 19 November 2021.