Published: 2021-12-27

Epidemiology and factors of tuberculosis treatment outcome, Bangladesh, 2012-13

Rabeya Sultana, Mojibur Rahman, Mahmudur Rahman


Tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome is an important indicator to improve TB control efforts. We assessed factors associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among smear-positive pulmonary TB patients reported to the national TB program from January 2012 to December 2013 in Bangladesh. Favorable outcomes were cured and treatment completed with unfavorable outcomes as failed, defaulted, died and lost to follow-up. We retrieved 98,932 patients with outcome data; 65,458 (66%) were male and 7,956 (8%) had unfavorable outcomes (3,737 (47%) died, 1,641 (21%) defaulted, and 1,599 (20%) lost to follow-up). In multivariable analysis, male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.49) and treatment at a chest disease hospital (CDH) (aOR 1.44; 95% CI 1.25-1.66) were risk factors. The association between male gender and unfavorable outcomes may result from the high smoking rates among males in Bangladesh. The association of treatment at a CDH with unfavorable outcomes may occur because complicated cases (e.g., TB with co-infections) are usually treated in a chest hospital in Bangladesh. A case-control study could further confirm and explain these findings.


TB, Unfavorable outcome, Treatment outcome

Full Text:



Harries AD, Dye C. Tuberculosis. Ann trop med parasitol. 2006;100(5-6):415-31.

WHO. Global Tuberculosis Report World Health Organization. 2018.

Das A. Epidemic situation of tuberculosis in Bangladesh: An overview. 2017;61.

Tweya H, Feldacker C, Phiri S, Ben-Smith A, Fenner L, Jahn A et al. Comparison of treatment outcomes of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients by HIV and antiretroviral status in a TB/HIV clinic, Malawi. PloS one. 2013;8(2):e56248.

WHO. Global tuberculosis report World health organization. 2013.

PCB. Millenium Developement Goals; Bangladesh Country Report. 2014.

WHO. Treatment of Tuberculosis: Guidelines. 4th edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010. 2, Case definitions. Available at: 2010. Accessed on

Rao S. Tuberculosis and patient gender: An analysis and its implications in tuberculosis control. Lung India : Official Organ of Indian Chest Society. 2009;26(2):46-7.

Alam DS, Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Streatfield PK, Niessen LW, Chowdhury MA et al. Smoking-attributable mortality in Bangladesh: proportional mortality study. Bull World Health Organization. 2013;91(10):757-64.

Kabir ZN, Ferdous T, Cederholm T, Khanam MA, Streatfied K, Wahlin A. Mini Nutritional Assessment of rural elderly people in Bangladesh: the impact of demographic, socio-economic and health factors. Public health nutrition. 2006;9(8):968-74.

Gupta KB, Gupta R, Atreja A, Verma M, Vishvkarma S. Tuberculosis and nutrition. Lung India. 2009;26(1):9-16.

Rajagopalan S, Yoshikawa TT. Tuberculosis in the elderly. Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie. 2000;33(5):374-80.

Yoshikawa T, Thomas SR. Tuberculosis and Aging: A Global Health Problem. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1034-9.

Codlin AJ, Khowaja S, Chen Z, Rahbar MH, Qadeer E, Ara I et al. Gender Differences in Tuberculosis Notification in Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hygiene. 2011;85(3):514-7.

Begum V, de Colombani P, Das Gupta S, Salim AH, Hussain H, Pietroni M et al. Tuberculosis and patient gender in Bangladesh: sex differences in diagnosis and treatment outcome. Int J Tuberculosis Lung Dis. 2001;5(7):604-10.

Mondal MN, Nazrul HM, Chowdhury MR, Howard J. Socio-demographic factors affecting knowledge level of Tuberculosis patients in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Afr Health Sci. 2014;14(4):855-65.

Ahsan G, Ahmed J, Singhasivanon P, Kaewkungwal J, Okanurak K, Suwannapong N et al. Gender difference in treatment seeking behaviors of tuberculosis cases in rural communities of Bangladesh. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35(1):126-35.

Kirenga BJ, Ssengooba W, Muwonge C, Nakiyingi L, Kyaligonza S, Kasozi S et al. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:13.

Mukherjee A, Saha I, Sarkar A, Chowdhury R. Gender differences in notification rates, clinical forms and treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients under the RNTCP. Lung India. 2012;29(2):120-2.

Rural Enterprise Development (RED) MIDPiCR, (MIDPCR) LGEDL, International Development Enterprise- Bangladesh (IDE-B). Agricultural Market Assessment Report Barisal and Noakhali Region. 2010.

Zaman K. Tuberculosis: A Global Health Problem. J Health Population Nutr. 2010;28(2):111-3.