DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20213187

A cross sectional study on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in affluent school children of central Kerala

Jaya Koothupalakkal Viswambharan, Ruth Abraham

Abstract


Background: Childhood obesity is increasing in India in recent years. The recent economic development and nutritional transition has been attributed to the increase in childhood obesity. Obesity in childhood predisposes to many cardiovascular/endocrinal problems in later years of life. This problem is taking an epidemic lever in Kerala too. Objective was to assess the prevalence of obesity among affluent school children in Thrissur.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 1104 private school children in Thrissur, Kerala, South India between November 2019 to October 2020. Prior permission to conduct the study was obtained from the respective authorities. Parent assent was obtained. A semi-structured questionnaire was used. Anthropometric measurements- height and weight were measured using the standard methods prescribed in the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO-STEPS) field manual.Bodymass index (BMI) was calculated and classified as per WHO guidelines for their respective ages.

Results: 13.9% were overweight and 7.3% were obese. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was 21.2%. Prevalence of obesity and overweight was 23.7% among boys and 18.2% among girls. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increases with age.

Conclusions: Appropriate preventive measures like change in food habits and life style practices, increasing physical activities, health education for parents and children, needs to be taken.

 


Keywords


Childhood obesity, Overweight, Prevalence

Full Text:

PDF

References


Marwah P, Marwah A, Kaur P. To Assess the Prevalence of Obesity Among Affluent School Children in Patiala, Punjab and Identify its Associated Risk Factors. Pediatr Oncall J. 2012;9:93-5.

Goyal JP. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent girls in Surat city, Western India. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015;1(1):2-4.

Chandra N, Anne B, Venkatesh K, Teja GD, Katkam SK. Prevalence of childhood obesity in an affluent school in Telangana using the recent IAP growth chart: A pilot study. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2019;23:428-32.

Eshwar TKM, Chudasama RK, Eshwar ST, Thakrar D. Prevalence of obesity and overweight and their comparison by three growth standards among affluent school students aged 8–18 years in Rajkot. Indian J Public Health. 2017;61:51-4.

Styne DM. Childhood obesity and Adolescent obesity, prevalence and significance. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001;48:823-47.

Shetty PS. Childhood obesity in Developing societies. Nutr Found India Bull. 1999;20:4.

Gupta AK, Ahmed AJ. Childhood obesity and hypertension. Indian Pediatr. 1990;27:333-7.

Kapil U, Singh P, Pathak P. Prevalence of obesity among affluent adolescent school children in Delhi. Indian Pediatr. 2002;39:450-2.

Jain S, Pant B, Chopra H, Tiwari R. Obesity among adolescents of affluent public schools in Meerut. Indian J Public Health. 2010;54(3):158-60.

Raj M, Karimassery SR. Obesity in Indian children: Time trends and relationship with hypertension. Natl Med J India. 2007;20(6):288-93.

International Institute for population science. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). Mumbai: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2017. Available at: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/nfhs-4Reports/India.pdf. Accessed on 21 May 2021.

Ekta G, Tulika MG. Risk factor distribution for cardiovascular diseases among high school boys and girls of urban Dibrugarh, Assam. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2016;5(1):108-13.

Sahoo K, Sahoo B, Choudhury AK, Sofi NY, Kumar R, Bhadoria AS. Childhood obesity : causes and consequences. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2015;4(2):2-7.

Ranjani H, Mehreen TS, Pradeepa R, Anjana RM, Garg R, Anand VM. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review. Indian J Med Res. 2016;143(2):160-74.

WHO. The WHO STEPwise approach to noncommunicable disease risk factor surveillance. 2017;5:8-10.

Sharma A, Sharma K, Mathur KP. Growth pattern and prevalence of obesity in affluent schoolchildren of Delhi. Public Health Nutr. 2007;10(5):485-91.

Aggarwal T, Bhatia RC, Singh D, Sobti PC. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in affluent adolescents from Ludhiana, Punjab. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45(6):500-2.

Kaur S, Sachdev HP, Dwivedi SN, Lakshmy R, Kapil U. Prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst school children in Delhi, India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(4):592-6.

Sidhu S, Kaur N, Kaur R. Overweight and obesity in affluent school children of Punjab. Ann Hum Biol. 2006;33(2):255-9.

Ghonge S, Adhav PS, Landge J, Thakor N. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among school children of Pune city, Maharashtra, India: a cross sectional study. Int J Res Med Sci. 2015;3:3599-603.

Danasekaran R, Ranganathan K. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adolescent school students in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2019;6:173-6.

Chandra N, Anne B, Venkatesh K, Teja GD, Katkam SK. Prevalence of childhood obesity in an affluent school in Telangana using the recent IAP growth chart: A pilot study. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2019;23:428-32.

Mahato MP, Chandra S, Bhattacharjee P. Prevalence of obesity in affluent school children of Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Child Health. 2015;2(1):13-4.

Subramanyam V, Jayashree R, Rafi M. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in affluent adoloscents girls in Chennai in 1981 and 1998. Indian Pediatr. 2003;40:332-6.

Bisoi SK, Mohanty MD. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among school children of Berhampur, Odisha, India. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2016;3:755-9.

Kumar S, Mahabalaraju DK, Anuroopa MS. Prevalence of obesity and its influencing factor among affluent school children of Davangere city. Indian J Community Med. 2007;32:15-7.

Manir Z, Koura A, Erfan M, El-Aziz A, Mansour M. Anthropometric parameters in relation to nutritional status in School children. Egypt Med J NRC. 2004;5:15-39.

Moy FM, Gan CY, Zaleha MK. Body mass status of school children and adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(4):324-9.

Ramzan M, Ali I, Khan AS. Body mass status of school children of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20(4):119-21.

Mozaffari H, Nabaei B. Obesity and Related Risk Factors. Indian J Pediatr. 2007;74(3)265-7.

Thakre SB, Mohane SP, Ughade SM, Thakre SS, Morey SS, Humne AY. Correlates of Overweight and Obesity Among Urban School Going Children of Nagpur City. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2011;5;1593-7.

Trupti NB, Samir DB, Valsangkar S, Budaraju S. Predictors of Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Children aged 5-14 years in an Urban area of Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Maternal And Child Health. 2010;12(4)1-9.

Soliman A, De Sanctis V, Elalaily R. Nutrition and pubertal development. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2014;18(1):39-47.

Sharma A, Sharma K, Mathur KP. Growth pattern and prevalence of obesity in affluent schoolchildren of Delhi. Public Health Nutr. 2007;10(5):485-91.

Mane AB, Rao EV, Gupta S. Obesity and its correlates among affluent school going adolescents in urban area. Indian Journal of Maternal and Child Health. 2011;13(4)1-9.

Kulkarni SS, Kumavat AP, Mane AB. Prevalence and determinants of overweight/obesity among affluent school children. Public Health Rev Int J Public Health Res. 2016;3(1):9-14.

Eshwar TKM, Chudasama RK, Eshwar ST, Thakrar D. Prevalence of obesity and overweight and their comparison by three growth standards among affluent school students aged 8–18 years in Rajkot. Indian J Public Health. 2017;61:51-4.