DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20200065

Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance: a literature review 2020

Bandar A. Alharbi, Abrar A. Assiri, Khulud A. Asiri, Dalia A. Albagli, Abrar A. Alanazi, Abeer A. Saleh, Abdulelah A. Luheybi, Yaser Y. Thabit, Abdulelah H. Alluhaybi

Abstract


Our aim is to review the literature and, where appropriate, investigating subsequent antibiotic resistance in individuals prescribed antibiotics in primary care. Data sources are observational and experimental studies identified through Medline, Embase, and Cochrane searches. Review methods Electronic searches using MeSH terms and text words identified 4373 papers. Results The review included 24 studies, 22 involved patients with symptomatic infection and two involved healthy volunteers, 19 were observational studies (of which two were prospective) and five were randomised trials. The observations concluded that individuals prescribed an antibiotic in primary care for a respiratory or urinary infection develop bacterial resistance to that antibiotic.


Keywords


Antibiotics, Resistance, Primary care, Review

Full Text:

PDF

References


Department of Health. UK antimicrobial resistance strategy and action plan. 2000. Available at: www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/ dh_4078448.pdf. Accessed on 3 November 2019.

Butler CC, Hillier S, Roberts Z, Dunstan F, Howard A, Palmer S. Antibiotic-resistant infections in primary care are symptomatic for longer and increase workload: outcomes for patients with E coli UTIs. Br J Gen Pract. 2006;56:686-92.

Department of Health. The path of least resistance. 1998. Available at: www.dh.gov.uk/ prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4120729.pdf. Accessed on 3 November 2019.

Prescription Pricing Authority. Trends in antibiotic prescribing in England. 2006. Available at: www.ppa.org.uk/news/pact-102004.htm. Accessed on 3 November 2019.

Ashworth M, Charlton J, Ballard K, Latinovic R, Gulliford M. Variations in antibiotic prescribing and consultation rates for acute respiratory infection in UK practices 1995-2000. Br J Gen Pract. 2005;55:603-8.

Ferech M, Coenen S, Malhotra-Kumar S, Dvorakova K, Hendrickx E, Suetens C, et al. European surveillance of antimicrobial consumption (ESAC): outpatient antibiotic use in Europe. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58:401-7.

Macfarlane J, Holmes W, Macfarlane R, Britten N. Influence of patients’ expectations on antibiotic management of acute lower respiratory tract illness in general practice: questionnaire study. BMJ. 1997;315:1211-4.

Brooks L, Shaw A, Sharp D, Hay AD. Towards a better understanding of patients’ perspectives of antibiotic resistance and MRSA: a qualitative study. Fam Pract. 2008;25:341-8.

Butler CC, Rollnick S, Pill R, Maggs-Rapport F, Stott N. Understanding the culture of prescribing: qualitative study of general practitioners’ and patients’ perceptions of antibiotics for sore throats. BMJ. 1998;317:637-42.

Kumar S, Little P, Britten N. Why do general practitioners prescribe antibiotics for sore throat? Grounded theory interview study. BMJ. 2003;326:138.

Seppala H, Klaukka T, Vuopio-Varkila J, Muotiala A, Helenius H, Lager K, et al. The effect of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics on erythromycin resistance in group A streptococci in Finland. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:441-6.

Priest P, Yudkin P, McNulty C, Mant D, Wise R. Antibacterial prescribing and antibacterial resistance in English general practice: cross sectional study. Commentary: antibiotic resistance is a dynamic process. BMJ. 2001;323:1037-41.

Lipsitch M, Samore MH. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:347-54.

Simpson SA, Wood F, Butler CC. General practitioners’ perceptions of antimicrobial resistance: a qualitative study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:292-6.

NICE. Respiratory tract infections: prescribing of antibiotics for selflimiting respiratory tract infections in adults and children in primary care. 2008.

Hillier SL, Magee JT, Howard AJ, Palmer SR. How strong is the evidence that antibiotic use is a risk factor for antibiotic-resistant, community-acquired urinary tract infection? J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;50:241-7.

Donnan PT, Wei L, Steinke DT, Phillips G, Clarke R, Noone A, et al. Presence of bacteriuria caused by trimethoprim resistant bacteria in patients prescribed antibiotics: multilevel model with practice and individual patient data. BMJ. 2004;328:1297-300.

Hay AD, Thomas M, Montgomery A, Wetherell M, Lovering A, McNulty C, et al. The relationship between primary care antibiotic prescribing and bacterial resistance in adults in the community: a controlled observational study using individual patient data. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56:146-53.

Hillier S, Roberts Z, Dunstan F, Butler C, Howard A, Palmer S. Prior antibiotics and risk of antibiotic-resistant community-acquired urinary tract infection: a case-control study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:92-9.

Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. JAMA. 2000;283:2008-12.

Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, Olkin I, Rennie D, Stroup DF. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Onkologie. 2000;23:597-602.

Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62:1006-12.

Steinke DT, Seaton RA, Phillips G, MacDonald TM, Davey PG. Prior trimethoprim use and trimethoprim-resistant urinary tract infection: a nested case-control study with multivariate analysis for other risk factors. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;47:781-7.

Metlay JP, Strom BL, Asch DA. Prior antimicrobial drug exposure: a risk factor for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant urinary tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:963.

Colodner R, Kometiani I, Chazan B, Raz R. Risk factors for community acquired urinary tract infection due to quinolone-resistant E coli. Infection. 2008;36:41-5.

Grunberg RN, Shaw EJ. The influence of antibiotic treatment on resistance patterns of coliform bacilli in childhood urinary-tract infection. J Med Microbiol. 1976;9:233-7.

Preiksaitis JK, Thompson L, Harding GKM, Marie TJ, Hoban S, Ronald AR. A comparison of the efficacy of nalidixic acid and cephalexin in bacteriuric women and their effect on fecal and periurethral carriage of enterobacteriaceae. J Infect Dis. 1981;143:603-8.

Chung A, Perera R, Brueggemann AB, Elamin AE, Harnden A, Mayon-White R, et al. Effect of antibiotic prescribing on antibiotic resistance in individual children in primary care: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2007;335:429-34.

Beekmann SE, Diekema DJ, Heilmann KP, Richter SS, Doern GV. Macrolide use identified as risk factor for macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a 17-center case-control study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;25:335-9.

Seaton RA, Steinke DT, Phillips G, MacDonald T, Davey PG. Community antibiotic therapy, hospitalization and subsequent respiratory tract isolation of Haemophilus influenzae resistant to amoxycillin: a nested case-control study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000;46:307-9.

Paganini H, la Latta MP, Muller OB, Ezcurra G, Uranga M, Aguirre C, et al. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in children: multicenter trial. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2008;106:397-403.

Campbell KM, Vaughn AF, Russell KL, Smith B, Jimenez DL, Barrozo CP, et al. Risk factors for community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in an outbreak of disease among military trainees in San Diego, California, in 2002. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4050-3.

Baggett HC, Hennessy TW, Rudolph K, Bruden D, Reasonover A, Parkinson A, et al. Community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with antibiotic use and the cytotoxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin during a furunculosis outbreak in rural Alaska. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:1565-73.

Lo WT, Lin WJ, Tseng MH, Lu JJ, Lee SY, Chu ML, et al. Nasal carriage of a single clone of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among kindergarten attendees in northern Taiwan. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:51.