DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20171762

Determinants of hypertension among urban adult population in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu

Gopalakrishnan S., Rama R., Savitha A. K.

Abstract


Background: Hypertension affects approximately 1 billion people worldwide and around 7.1 million deaths per year (13% of the total) may be attributable to it. In India, the overall prevalence of raised blood pressure among adults aged 18 years and above was estimated to be 25.9% among males and 24.8% among females. Keeping in mind the growing burden of NCDs like hypertension, this study was conducted with the objective to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and its associated determinants so as to understand the gravity of the problem and to plan possible corrective measures.

Methods: This community based cross sectional study was done among adult population in an urban area in Kancheepuram district using a sample size of 1634 calculated based on the prevalence of a previous study. Probability Proportion to Size and simple random sampling method was used. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 15 by calculating appropriate percentages and strength of association of variables.

Results: This study results shows that the prevalence of pre – hypertension was 51.3% (males 54.2% and females 48.5%). Overall prevalence of stage I hypertension was 17.2% (males 20.2% and females 14.4%), stage II hypertension was 5.2% (males 6.3% and females 4.2%). A statistical significant association was found between hypertension and its associated determinants such as increasing age, gender (male predominance), history of diabetes mellitus and overweight/obesity (P value <0.05).

Conclusions: This study outcome shows that the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension is high among the adult population. For non-communicable diseases like hypertension every level of preventive care plays a major role to bring about a healthy behaviour and lifestyle change among the population which in turn will help in reducing the morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords


High blood pressure, Pre-hypertension, Risk factor, Non communicable diseases

Full Text:

PDF

References


National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Cycle 2, Pulse And Blood Pressure Procedures For Household Interviewers. Prepared by: Westat, Inc.1650 Research Boulevard Rockville, MD 20850. Revised July 1993. Available at: http://www. cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes3/

cdrom/nchs/manuals/pressure.pdf. Accessed on 1 November 2016.

James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-20.

Park K. Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. Chapter 6. 23 rd Edition. India: M/s Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers; 2015: 372.

World Health Organization. The world health report 2002: reducing risks, promoting healthy life. World Health Organization; 2002. Available at http://www.who.int/whr/2002/. Accessed on 1 November 2016.

World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2015.Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream

/10665/170250/1/9789240694439_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed on 1 November 2016.

World Health Organization. Global status report on Non communicable diseases 2014.Available at: https://www.ifa-fiv.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2015/

/WHO-Global-status-report-on-NCDs-2014.pdf. Accessed on 1 November 2016.

Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R. Prospective studies collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360(9349):1903-13.

World Health Organization. A global brief on hypertension: silent killer, global public health crisis. Section 1.World; 2016: 11.

Sunderlal, Adarsh, Pankaj. Text Book of Community Medicine, Chapter 13. Fourth edition. India: M/s CBS Publishers and Distributors p (LTD); 2014: 603.

Bhansali A, Dhandania VK, Deepa M, Anjana RM, Joshi SR, Joshi PP, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in urban and rural India: the ICMR–INDIAB study. J Hum Hypertens. 2015;29(3):204-9.

Pickering TG, Hall JE, Appel LJ, Falkner BE, Graves J, Hill MN, et al. Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. Circulation. 2005;111(5):697-716.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, IzzoJr JL, et al. JNC 7: Complete report-seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42(6):1206-52.

Zaman MM. Prevalence of hypertension in a Bangladeshi adult population. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13:547–9.

Bhadoria AS, Kasar PK, Toppo NA, Bhadoria P, Pradhan S, Kabirpanthi V. Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Central India. J Family Community Med. 2014;21(1):29.

ParveenGani JP, Paramasivam S. Prevalence of hypertension in an urban area: a community-based survey in Trichy, TamilNadu, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3(8):2325-9.

Gupta R. Trends in hypertension epidemiology in India. J Hum Hypertens. 2004;18:73-8.

Gopalakrishnan S, Ganeshkumar P, Katta A. Study of Morbidity Profile of a Rural Population in Tamil Nadu. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9(2):5-9.

Savitha AK, Gopalakrishnan S, Umadevi R. A Study on Prevalence of Pre - Hypertension among Adult population in a Rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2015;6(5)1515-9.

Parthaje PM, Unnikrishnan B, Thankappan KR, Thapar R, Fatt QK, Oldenburg B. Prevalence and Correlates of Prehypertension Among Adults in Urban South India. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2016;28(1):93-101.

Ismail IM, Kulkarni AG, Meundi AD, Amruth M. A community-based comparative study of prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among urban and rural populations in a coastal town of South India. Int Med J Sifa Univ. 2016;3(2):41.

Kumar KA, Kothari RP, Kothari KU, Garg SU, Khandelwal MK, Gupta RE. Prevalence of hypertension in an urban and rural area of Jaipur district. Int J of Biomed Res. 2013;1:120-6.

Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay S, Barik A. Sex differences in the risk profile of hypertension: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open. 2016;6(7):e010085.

Shrestha S, Devkota R. Prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in a sub-urban area of central Nepal. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3(9):2477-86.

Galav A, Bhatanagar R, Meghwal SC, Jain M. Prevalence of Hypertension among Rural and Urban Population in Southern Rajasthan. National J Community Med. 2015;6(2):41-5.