Outbreak of cholera at Dutsen-Abba Ward Zaria local government area, Kaduna State Nigeria 2015: the importance of hygienic practices

Baffa S. Ibrahim, Yahaya Mohammed, Rabi Usman, Ubong A. Okon, Uche I. Katchy, Abayomi A. Olufemi, Mercy Niyang, Bola Gobir, Oyeladun Funmi Okunromade


Background: Cholera is an infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated promptly. On August 31, 2015, the Kaduna Ministry of Health received a notification of increase cases of vomiting and diarrhoea at Dusten-Abba in Zaria. A response Team was sent to confirm the outbreak, describe the socio-demographic characteristics and identify possible risk factors for the outbreak.

Methods: We defined cases according to the world health organization (WHO) criteria. We conducted an unmatched case-control study and descriptive study. We retrieved line-listed cases at the ward facility. We interviewed cases at the facility and recruited controls from the community, and administered questionnaires to both cases and controls. We analysed data using Epi-Info7 and Microsoft Excel 2016.

Results: A total of 50 cases were recorded, with a median age of 20years and age range of 1 – 50 years. There were more females (68%) than males. Majority of cases (52%) were under 20 years, while all cases are below 50 years. Seven (7) deaths were recorded giving a Case Fatality Rate (CFR) of 14%. The CFR was higher in females (14.7%) than in males (12.5%). Index case was seen on August 29, 2015. The outbreak lasted five days. Last cases were seen on September 2, 2015. Highest number of cases seen in a day (23) was on third day of the outbreak. Only two cases (4%) had their samples tested using cholera RDT, and both tested positive. Drinking un-boiled water (OR: 12.67, 95%CI: 2.33–68.93), regular hand washing (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06–0.90) and proper waste disposal practices (OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02–0.36) are factors we found to affect cholera infection during the outbreak.

Conclusions: Our investigation confirmed a cholera outbreak with a high CFR, especially among females. Poor hygienic practices among the populace seem to be the drivers for this outbreak.


Cholera, Outbreak, Hygienic practices, Kaduna

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