DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20171774

Prevalence and factors associated with hypertension: a community based cross-sectional study among adults in an urban area of Puducherry, South India

Pramila J. Paul, Rebecca Samson, Annie William, Bridgitte Akila, Anil J. Purty, Joy Bazroy

Abstract


Background: The prevalence of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases in India are on the increasing trend. Hypertension is a major public health problem in India. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of hypertension in an urban area of Puducherry, South India.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among adults in an urban area of Puducherry, South India, between Oct 2013 to Nov 2013. A total of 236 adults aged ≥ 35years were selected and data was collected using piloted questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured following standard technique.

Results: Out of 236 participants 123(52.1%) were found to be hypertensives. Among the hypertensives, nearly one fourth 32(24%) of them were undiagnosed hypertensives. Advanced age, male gender, housewives compared to their counterparts, family history of hypertension, alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, and abdominal obesity (among females) were significantly associated with hypertension.

Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension is found to be high. Regular health education programme to raise awareness and community-based screening programme should be given priority for early detection of hypertension and prevention of complications. 


Keywords


Prevalence, Risk factors, Hypertension, Urban

Full Text:

PDF

References


World health statistics report. New data highlight increases in hypertension, diabetes incidence. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.

Joshi SR, Saboo B, Vadivale M, Dani SI, Mithal A, Kaul U, et al. Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension in India-Results from the Screening India's Twin Epidemic (SITE) study. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012;14:8-15.

World Health Organization. Global status report on non communicable diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.

World Health Organization. Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.

World Health Organization. Raised blood pressure. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. /

World Health Organization. World health statistics report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.

Reddy KS. Regional case studies--India. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2009;63:15-24.

Bharati DR, Nandi P, Yamuna TV, Lokeshmaran A, Agarwal L, Singh JB, et al. Prevalence and Covariates of Undiagnosed Hypertension in the Adult Population of Puducherry, South India. Nepal J Epidemiol. 2012;2(2):191-9.

Kumar BPR, Dudala SR, Rao AR. Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale–A revision of economic parameter for 2012. Int J Res Dev Health. 2013;1(1):2-4.

World Health Organization. Global Database on Body Mass Index. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.

The Evidence Report. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. United States: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 1998.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, et al. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 Report. JAMA. 2003;289(19):2560-72.

Manimunda SP, Sugunan AP, Benegal V, Balakrishna N, Rao MV, Pesala KS. Association of hypertension with risk factors & hypertension related behaviour among the aboriginal Nicobarese tribe living in Car Nicobar Island, India. Indian J Med Res. 2011;133(3):287–93.

Vimala A, Ranji SA, Jyosna MT, Chandran V, Mathews SR, Pappachan JM. The prevalence, risk factors and awareness of hypertension in an urban population of Kerala (South India). Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2009;20(4):685-9.

Zachariah MG, Thankappan KR, Alex SC, Sarma PS, Vasan RS. Prevalence, correlates, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in a middle-aged urban population in Kerala. Indian Heart J. 2003;55(3):245-51.

Midha T, Idris MZ, Saran RK, Srivastava AK, Singh SK. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in the urban and rural population of a north Indian district. East Afr J Public Health. 2009;6(3):268-73.

Deepa R, Shanthirani CS, Pradeepa R, Mohan V. Is the ‘rule of halves’ in hypertension still valid?--Evidence from the Chennai urban population study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003;51:153-7.

Rao CR, Kamath VG, Shetty A, Kamath A. High blood pressure prevalence and significant correlates: A quantitative analysis from coastal Karnataka, India. ISRN Prev Med. 2013;1:1-6.

Kannan L, Satyamoorthy TS. An epidemiological study of hypertension in a rural household community. Sri Ramachandra J Med. 2009;2(2):9-13.

Raina DJ, Jamwal DS. Prevalence study of overweight/obesity and hypertension among rural adults. JK Sci. 2009;11(1):20-3.

Brookes L. The bad news about prevalence, the good news about treatments -- But pay attention to the details. California: Medscape; 2005.

Kokiwar PR, Gupta SS, Durge PM. Prevalence of hypertension in a rural community of central India. J Assoc Physicians India. 2012;60:26-9.

Divan V, Chauhan V, Panchal S, Bansal RK. Prevalence of hypertension amongst workers of a fertilizer company in Surat District. Natl J Community Med. 2010;1(2):153-5.

Prashanth HL. Prevalence of hypertension in an urban and rural area of Gulbarga district-A comparative study. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Karnataka: Rajiv Gandhi University; 2006.

Qureshi AI, Qureshi AM, Kumar NK, Ravikanth C, Anuhya A, Bhaskar V, et al. Determinants of prevalence of hypertension and obesity among the adult population of 50 years and above. Int J Res in Health Sciences. 2013;1(3):171-2.

Yadav S, Boddula R, Genitta G, Bhatia V, Bansal B, Kongara S, et al. Prevalence & risk factors of pre-hypertension & hypertension in an affluent north Indian population. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128(6):712-20.

Madhumitha M, Naraintran S, Manohar C, Revathi S, Mallikarjun K, Biradar, et al. Hypertension – Prevalence and risk factors among urban population in north Karnataka. Int J Curr Res Rev. 2014;6(7):39-45.

Reddy SS, Prabhu GR. Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in adults in an urban slum, Tirupati, A.P. Indian J Community Med. 2005;30(3):84-6.