DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20171773

Evaluation of primary immunization coverage among children in a rural block of district Rohtak, Haryana, India

Sahil Goyal, Vijay Kumar, Ritika Garg

Abstract


Background: Vaccination is the most important preventive and cost-effective intervention to decrease morbidity and mortality rates in children. Every year, vaccination averts an estimated 2-3 million deaths from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles. These are all life threatening diseases that disproportionately affect children. An estimated 1.5 million children die annually from diseases that can be prevented by immunization. In the past 50 years, vaccination has saved more lives worldwide than any other medical products or procedures. The objectives of the study were to evaluate primary immunization coverage along with 1st dose of Vitamin-A supplementation coverage, age-appropriate immunization and also to know the reasons for partial or non-immunization among children.

Methods: Community-based cross sectional study was conducted among 540 children in the rural area of Rohtak, Haryana during June 2015-May 2016. Information was collected from the mothers regarding immunization status of their children aged 12-23 months old and socio-demographic variables using a semi-structured interview schedule.

Results: 395 (73.15%) of 12-23 months old children were fully immunized and the rest 145 (26.85%) were partially immunized. The major reason for drop-out rate was found to be unawareness regarding need for immunization. Immunization coverage was found to be significantly associated with the presence of immunization card and literacy level of mothers.

Conclusions: Though the immunization coverage showed improvement through intensive immunization campaigns in recent years, still a lot needs to be done to increase awareness regarding importance of full immunization at the right time as mentioned in the National Immunization schedule (NIS).


Keywords


Immunization, Coverage, Cluster, Age-appropriate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Levine OS, Bloom DE, Cherian T, de Quadros C, Sow S, Wecker J, et al. The Future of Immunisation Policy, Implementation, and Financing. Lancet. 2011;378(9789):439-48.

World Health Organization. WHO vaccine safety basics learning module. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO 2013. Available from http://ww.who.int/ vaccinesafety/initiative/tech_support/vaccine-safety-E-course-manual.pdf. Accessed on 15 November 2016.

Vashishtha VM, Agrawal R, Sukumaran TU. IAP Textbook of Vaccines. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(P) Ltd; 2014: 57.

Vashishtha VM, Agrawal R, Sukumaran TU. IAP Textbook of Vaccines. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2014: 3.

United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. How does immunization work? UNICEF. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/ immunization/index_how.html. Accessed on 10 January 2017.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Family Health Survey-3: State factsheet Haryana. International Institute for Population Sciences. Mumbai 2005-06. Available from http://rchiips.org/nfhs/pdf/Haryana.pdf/HR_FactSheet.pdf. Accessed on 17 January 2017.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Immunization Handbook for Medical Officers. 3rd ed. New Delhi, India; 2016.

Verma R. Manual of Practical Community Medicine. 2nd ed. Saurabh Medical Publishers; 2014.

Kadri AM, Singh A, Jain S, Mahajan RG, Trivedi A. Study on immunization coverage in urban slums of Ahmedabad city. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 2010;33(1):50-4.

Jain SK, Chawla U, Gupta N, Gupta RS, Venkatesh S, Lal S. Child survival and safe motherhood programme in Rajasthan. Indian J Pediatr. 2006;73(1):43­7.

Chaudhary V, Kumar R, Agarwal VK, Joshi HS, Sharma M. Evaluation of Primary immunization coverage in an urban area of Bareilly city using Cluster Sampling Technique. Indian J Community Med. 2008;33(3):151-5.

Angadi MM, Jose AP, Udgiri R, Masali KA, Sorganvi V. A Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Immunization of Children in Urban Slums of Bijapur City, Karnataka, India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(12):2803-6.

Adhikary M, Haque R, Tanira S. Determinants of Child Immunization Under Expanded Programme On Immunization (Epi) In A Rural Setting Of Bangladesh. J Dhaka Med Coll. 2013;22(2):201-6.

Gupta PK, Pore P, Patil U. Evaluation of Immunization Coverage in the Rural Area of Pune, Maharashtra, Using the 30 Cluster Sampling Technique J Family Med Prim Care. 2013;2(1):50-4.

Nath B, Singh JV, Awasthi S, Bhushan V, Kumar V, Singh SK. KAP Study on Immunization of Children in a City of North India – A 30 Cluster Survey. Online J Health Allied Scs. 2008;7(1):2.

Odomani M, Sagar MV, Ambure O, Mane V. Assessment of primary immunization coverage in children between 12 to 23 months in Bhadravathi taluk, Shimoga district. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014;3:560-3.

Cakir B, Uner S, Temel F, Akin L. Lot quality survey: an appealing method for rapid evaluation for vaccine coverage in developing countries-experience in Turkey. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:240.

Shrivastwa N, Gillespie BW, Lepkowski JM, Boulton ML. Vaccination Timeliness in Children under India's Universal Immunization Program. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;35(9):955­60.

Yadav S, Mangal S, Padhiyar N, Mehta JP, Yadav BS. Evaluation of immunization coverage in urban slums of Jamnagar city. Indian J Community Med. 2006;31(4).

Gidado S, Nguku P, Biya O, Waziri NE, Mohammed A, Nsubuga P. Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010. Pan Afr Med J. 2014;18 Supp. 1:9.